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General Defences

The general rule of criminal law is that it is the duty of the prosecution to prove the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable doubt and the benefit of doubt is given to the accused. But the burden of proving existence of circumstances bringing his case within any of the exceptions given under Indian Penal […]

Public Interest Litigation Origin,Constitutional aspect,Guidelines

Public Interest Litigation Origin,Constitutional aspect,Guidelines

Definitions of Public Interest Litigation Public Interest Litigation has been defined in the Black’s Law Dictionary (6th Edition) as under:- “Public Interest Litigation is something in which the public, the community at large, has some pecuniary interest, or some interest by which their legal rights or liabilities are affected. It does not mean anything so […]

Fundamental Duties

Fundamental Duties are defined as moral obligation of every citizen which is to be followed in spirit of nationalism and patriotism. Fundamental Duties were added in the 42nd Amendment of the constitution. These are mentioned in Art 51A. These duties were taken from the constitution of USSR now Russia, with intent that rights cannot exist […]