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Chapter VII – MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION

Section 88 – Register of members, etc.
(1) Every company shall keep and maintain the following registers in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed, namely:–

(a) register of members indicating separately for each class of equity and preference shares held by each member residing in or outside India;

(b) register of debenture-holders; and

(c) register of any other security holders.

(2) Every register maintained under sub-section (1) shall include an index of the names included therein.

(3) The register and index of beneficial owners maintained by a depository under section 11 of the Depositories Act, 1996 (22 of 1996), shall be deemed to be the corresponding register and index for the purposes of this Act.

(4) A company may, if so authorised by its articles, keep in any country outside India, in such manner as may be prescribed, a part of the register referred to in sub-section (1), called “foreign register” containing the names and particulars of the members, debenture-holders, other security holders or beneficial owners residing outside India.

(5) If a company does not maintain a register of members or debenture-holders or other security holders or fails to maintain them in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees and where the failure is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day, after the first during which the failure continues.

Section 89 – Declaration in respect of beneficial interest in any share
(1) Where the name of a person is entered in the register of members of a company as the holder of shares in that company but who does not hold the beneficial interest in such shares, such person shall make a declaration within such time and in such form as may be prescribed to the company specifying the name and other particulars of the person who holds the beneficial interest in such shares.

(2) Every person who holds or acquires a beneficial interest in share of a company shall make a declaration to the company specifying the nature of his interest, particulars of the person in whose name the shares stand registered in the books of the company and such other particulars as may be prescribed.

(3) Where any change occurs in the beneficial interest in such shares, the person referred to in sub-section (1) and the beneficial owner specified in sub-section (2) shall, within a period of thirty days from the date of such change, make a declaration to the company in such form and containing such particulars as may be prescribed.

(4) The Central Government may make rules to provide for the manner of holding and disclosing beneficial interest and beneficial ownership under this section.

(5) If any person fails, to make a declaration as required under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3), without any reasonable cause, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees and where the failure is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the failure continues.

(6) Where any declaration under this section is made to a company, the company shall make a note of such declaration in the register concerned and shall file, within thirty days from the date of receipt of declaration by it, a return in the prescribed form with the Registrar in respect of such declaration with such fees or additional fees as may be prescribed, within the time specified under section 403.

(7) If a company, required to file a return under sub-section (6), fails to do so before the expiry of the time specified under the first proviso to sub-section (1) of section 403, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees but which may extend to one thousand rupees and where the failure is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the failure continues.

(8) No right in relation to any share in respect of which a declaration is required to be made under this section but not made by the beneficial owner, shall be enforceable by him or by any person claiming through him.

(9) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prejudice the obligation of a company to pay dividend to its members under this Act and the said obligation shall, on such payment, stand discharged.

Section 90 – Investigation of beneficial ownership of shares in certain cases
Where it appears to the Central Government that there are reasons so to do, it may appoint one or more competent persons to investigate and report as to beneficial ownership with regard to any share or class of shares and the provisions of section 216 shall, as far as may be, apply to such investigation as if it were an investigation ordered under that section.

Section 91 – Power to close register of members or debenture
(1) A company may close the register of members or the register of debenture-holders or the register of other security holders for any period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate forty-five days in each year, but not exceeding thirty days at any one time, subject to giving of previous notice of at least seven days or such lesser period as may be specified by Securities and Exchange Board for listed companies or the companies which intend to get their securities listed, in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) If the register of members or of debenture-holders or of other security holders is closed without giving the notice as provided in sub-section (1), or after giving shorter notice than that so provided, or for a continuous or an aggregate period in excess of the limits specified in that sub-section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a penalty of five thousand rupees for every day subject to a maximum of one lakh rupees during which the register is kept closed.

Section 92 – Annual return
(1) Every company shall prepare a return (hereinafter referred to as the annual return) in the prescribed form containing the particulars as they stood on the close of the financial year regarding–

(a) its registered office, principal business activities, particulars of its holding, subsidiary and associate companies;

(b) its shares, debentures and other securities and shareholding pattern;

(c) its indebtedness;

(d) its members and debenture-holders along with changes therein since the close of the previous financial year;

(e) its promoters, directors, key managerial personnel along with changes therein since the close of the previous financial year;

(f) meetings of members or a class thereof, Board and its various committees along with attendance details;

(g) remuneration of directors and key managerial personnel;

(h) penalty or punishment imposed on the company, its directors or officers and details of compounding of offences and appeals made against such penalty or punishment;

(i) matters relating to certification of compliances, disclosures as may be prescribed;

(j) details, as may be prescribed, in respect of shares held by or on behalf of the Foreign Institutional Investors indicating their names, addresses, countries of incorporation, registration and percentage of shareholding held by them; and

(k) such other matters as may be prescribed,

and signed by a director and the company secretary, or where there is no company secretary, by a company secretary in practice:

Provided that in relation to One Person Company and small company, the annual return shall be signed by the company secretary, or where there is no company secretary, by the director of the company.

(2) The annual return, filed by a listed company or, by a company having such paid-up capital and turnover as may be prescribed, shall be certified by a company secretary in practice in the prescribed form, stating that the annual return discloses the facts correctly and adequately and that the company has complied with all the provisions of this Act.

(3) An extract of the annual return in such form as may be prescribed shall form part of the Board’s report.

(4) Every company shall file with the Registrar a copy of the annual return, within sixty days from the date on which the annual general meeting is held or where no annual general meeting is held in any year within sixty days from the date on which the annual general meeting should have been held together with the statement specifying the reasons for not holding the annual general meeting, with such fees or additional fees as may be prescribed, within the time as specified, under section 403.

(5) If a company fails to file its annual return under sub-section (4), before the expiry of the period specified under section 403 with additional fee, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakhs rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.

(6) If a company secretary in practice certifies the annual return otherwise than in conformity with the requirements of this section or the rules made thereunder, he shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

Section 93 – Return to be filed with Registrar in case promoters’ stake changes
Every listed company shall file a return in the prescribed form with the Registrar with respect to change in the number of shares held by promoters and top ten shareholders of such company, within fifteen days of such change.

Section 94 – Place of keeping and inspection of registers, returns, etc.
(1) The registers required to be kept and maintained by a company under section 88 and copies of the annual return filed under section 92 shall be kept at the registered office of the company:

Provided that such registers or copies of return may also be kept at any other place in India in which more than one-tenth of the total number of members entered in the register of members reside, if approved by a special resolution passed at a general meeting of the company and the Registrar has been given a copy of the proposed special resolution in advance:

Provided further that the period for which the registers, returns and records are required to be kept shall be such as may be prescribed.

(2) The registers and their indices, except when they are closed under the provisions of this Act, and the copies of all the returns shall be open for inspection by any member, debenture-holder, other security holder or beneficial owner, during business hours without payment of any fees and by any other person on payment of such fees as may be prescribed.

(3) Any such member, debenture-holder, other security holder or beneficial owner or any other person may–

(a) take extracts from any register, or index or return without payment of any fee; or

(b) require a copy of any such register or entries therein or return on payment of such fees as may be prescribed.

(4) If any inspection or the making of any extract or copy required under this section is refused, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable, for each such default, to a penalty of one thousand rupees for every day subject to a maximum of one lakh rupees during which the refusal or default continues.

(5) The Central Government may also, by order, direct an immediate inspection of the document, or direct that the extract required shall forthwith be allowed to be taken by the person requiring it.

Section 95 – Registers, etc., to be evidence
The registers, their indices and copies of annual returns maintained under sections 88 and 94 shall be prima facie evidence of any matter directed or authorised to be inserted therein by or under this Act.

Section 96 – Annual general meeting
(1) Every company other than a One Person Company shall in each year hold in addition to any other meetings, a general meeting as its annual general meeting and shall specify the meeting as such in the notices calling it, and not more than fifteen months shall elapse between the date of one annual general meeting of a company and that of the next:

Provided that in case of the first annual general meeting, it shall be held within a period of nine months from the date of closing of the first financial year of the company and in any other case, within a period of six months, from the date of closing of the financial year:

Provided further that if a company holds its first annual general meeting as aforesaid, it shall not be necessary for the company to hold any annual general meeting in the year of its incorporation:

Provided also that the Registrar may, for any special reason, extend the time within which any annual general meeting, other than the first annual general meeting, shall be held, by a period not exceeding three months.

(2) Every annual general meeting shall be called during business hours, that is, between 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. on any day that is not a National Holiday and shall be held either at the registered office of the company or at some other place within the city, town or village in which the registered office of the company is situate:

Provided that the Central Government may exempt any company from the provisions of this sub-section subject to such conditions as it may impose.

Explanation.–For the purposes of this sub-section, “National Holiday” means and includes a day declared as National Holiday by the Central Government.

Section 97 – Power of Tribunal to call annual general meeting
(1) If any default is made in holding the annual general meeting of a company under section 96, the Tribunal may, notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or the articles of the company, on the application of any member of the company, call, or direct the calling of, an annual general meeting of the company and give such ancillary or consequential directions as the Tribunal thinks expedient:

Provided that such directions may include a direction that one member of the company present in person or by proxy shall be deemed to constitute a meeting.

(2) A general meeting held in pursuance of sub-section (1) shall, subject to any directions of the Tribunal, be deemed to be an annual general meeting of the company under this Act.

Section 98 – Power of Tribunal to call meetings of members, etc.
(1) If for any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of a company, other than an annual general meeting, in any manner in which meetings of the company may be called, or to hold or conduct the meeting of the company in the manner prescribed by this Act or the articles of the company, the Tribunal may, either suo motu or on the application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to vote at the meeting,–

(a) order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Tribunal thinks fit; and

(b) give such ancillary or consequential directions as the Tribunal thinks expedient, including directions modifying or supplementing in relation to the calling, holding and conducting of the meeting, the operation of the provisions of this Act or articles of the company:

Provided that such directions may include a direction that one member of the company present in person or by proxy shall be deemed to constitute a meeting.

(2) Any meeting called, held and conducted in accordance with any order made under sub-section (1) shall, for all purposes, be deemed to be a meeting of the company duly called, held and conducted.

Section 99 – Punishment for default in complying with provisions of sections 96 to 98
If any default is made in holding a meeting of the company in accordance with section 96 or section 97 or section 98 or in complying with any directions of the Tribunal, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees and in the case of a continuing default, with a further fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such default continues.

Section 100 – Calling of extraordinary general meeting
(1) The Board may, whenever it deems fit, call an extraordinary general meeting of the company.

(2) The Board shall, at the requisition made by,–

(a) in the case of a company having a share capital, such number of members who hold, on the date of the receipt of the requisition, not less than one-tenth of such of the paid-up share capital of the company as on that date carries the right of voting;

(b) in the case of a company not having a share capital, such number of members who have, on the date of receipt of the requisition, not less than one-tenth of the total voting power of all the members having on the said date a right to vote,

call an extraordinary general meeting of the company within the period specified in subsection (4).

(3) The requisition made under sub-section (2) shall set out the matters for the consideration of which the meeting is to be called and shall be signed by the requisitionists and sent to the registered office of the company.

(4) If the Board does not, within twenty-one days from the date of receipt of a valid requisition in regard to any matter, proceed to call a meeting for the consideration of that matter on a day not later than forty-five days from the date of receipt of such requisition, the meeting may be called and held by the requisitionists themselves within a period of three months from the date of the requisition.

(5) A meeting under sub-section (4) by the requisitionists shall be called and held in the same manner in which the meeting is called and held by the Board.

(6) Any reasonable expenses incurred by the requisitionists in calling a meeting under sub-section (4) shall be reimbursed to the requisitionists by the company and the sums so paid shall be deducted from any fee or other remuneration under section 197 payable to such of the directors who were in default in calling the meeting.

Section 101 – Notice of meeting
(1) A general meeting of a company may be called by giving not less than clear twenty-one days’ notice either in writing or through electronic mode in such manner as may be prescribed:

Provided that a general meeting may be called after giving a shorter notice if consent is given in writing or by electronic mode by not less than ninety-five per cent. of the members entitled to vote at such meeting.

(2) Every notice of a meeting shall specify the place, date, day and the hour of the meeting and shall contain a statement of the business to be transacted at such meeting.

(3) The notice of every meeting of the company shall be given to–

(a) every member of the company, legal representative of any deceased member or the assignee of an insolvent member;

(b) the auditor or auditors of the company; and

(c) every director of the company.

(4) Any accidental omission to give notice to, or the non-receipt of such notice by, any member or other person who is entitled to such notice for any meeting shall not invalidate the proceedings of the meeting.

Section 102 – Statement to be annexed to notice
(1) A statement setting out the following material facts concerning each item of special business to be transacted at a general meeting, shall be annexed to the notice calling such meeting, namely:–

(a) the nature of concern or interest, financial or otherwise, if any, in respect of each items of–

(i) every director and the manager, if any;

(ii) every other key managerial personnel; and

(iii) relatives of the persons mentioned in sub-clauses (i) and (ii);

(b) any other information and facts that may enable members to understand the meaning, scope and implications of the items of business and to take decision thereon.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1),–

(a) in the case of an annual general meeting, all business to be transacted thereat shall be deemed special, other than–

(i) the consideration of financial statements and the reports of the Board of Directors and auditors;

(ii) the declaration of any dividend;

(iii) the appointment of directors in place of those retiring;

(iv) the appointment of, and the fixing of the remuneration of, the auditors; and

(b) in the case of any other meeting, all business shall be deemed to be special:

Provided that where any item of special business to be transacted at a meeting of the company relates to or affects any other company, the extent of shareholding interest in that other company of every promoter, director, manager, if any, and of every other key managerial personnel of the first mentioned company shall, if the extent of such shareholding is not less than two per cent. of the paid-up share capital of that company, also be set out in the statement.

(3) Where any item of business refers to any document, which is to be considered at the meeting, the time and place where such document can be inspected shall be specified in the statement under sub-section (1).

(4) Where as a result of the non-disclosure or insufficient disclosure in any statement referred to in sub-section (1), being made by a promoter, director, manager, if any, or other key managerial personnel, any benefit which accrues to such promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel or their relatives, either directly or indirectly, the promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel, as the case may be, shall hold such benefit in trust for the company, and shall, without prejudice to any other action being taken against him under this Act or under any other law for the time being in force, be liable to compensate the company to the extent of the benefit received by him.

(5) If any default is made in complying with the provisions of this section, every promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees or five times the amount of benefit accruing to the promoter, director, manager or other key managerial personnel or any of his relatives, whichever is more.

Section 103 – Quorum for meetings
(1) Unless the articles of the company provide for a larger number,–

(a) in case of a public company,–

(i) five members personally present if the number of members as on the date of meeting is not more than one thousand;

(ii) fifteen members personally present if the number of members as on the date of meeting is more than one thousand but up to five thousand;

(iii) thirty members personally present if the number of members as on the date of the meeting exceeds five thousand;

(b) in the case of a private company, two members personally present, shall be the quorum for a meeting of the company.

(2) If the quorum is not present within half-an-hour from the time appointed for holding a meeting of the company–

(a) the meeting shall stand adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same time and place, or to such other date and such other time and place as the Board may determine; or

(b) the meeting, if called by requisitionists under section 100, shall stand cancelled:

Provided that in case of an adjourned meeting or of a change of day, time or place of meeting under clause (a), the company shall give not less than three days notice to the members either individually or by publishing an advertisement in the newspapers (one in English and one in vernacular language) which is in circulation at the place where the registered office of the company is situated.

(3) If at the adjourned meeting also, a quorum is not present within half-an-hour from the time appointed for holding meeting, the members present shall be the quorum.

Section 104 – Chairman of meetings
(1) Unless the articles of the company otherwise provide, the members personally present at the meeting shall elect one of themselves to be the Chairman thereof on a show of hands.

(2) If a poll is demanded on the election of the Chairman, it shall be taken forthwith in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the Chairman elected on a show of hands under sub-section (1) shall continue to be the Chairman of the meeting until some other person is elected as Chairman as a result of the poll, and such other person shall be the Chairman for the rest of the meeting.

Section 105 – Proxies
(1) Any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the company shall be entitled to appoint another person as a proxy to attend and vote at the meeting on his behalf:

Provided that a proxy shall not have the right to speak at such meeting and shall not be entitled to vote except on a poll:

Provided further that, unless the articles of a company otherwise provide, this subsection shall not apply in the case of a company not having a share capital:

Provided also that the Central Government may prescribe a class or classes of companies whose members shall not be entitled to appoint another person as a proxy:

Provided also that a person appointed as proxy shall act on behalf of such member or number of members not exceeding fifty and such number of shares as may be prescribed.

(2) In every notice calling a meeting of a company which has a share capital, or the articles of which provide for voting by proxy at the meeting, there shall appear with reasonable prominence a statement that a member entitled to attend and vote is entitled to appoint a proxy, or, where that is allowed, one or more proxies, to attend and vote instead of himself, and that a proxy need not be a member.

(3) If default is made in complying with sub-section (2), every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.

(4) Any provision contained in the articles of a company which specifies or requires a longer period than forty-eight hours before a meeting of the company, for depositing with the company or any other person any instrument appointing a proxy or any other document necessary to show the validity or otherwise relating to the appointment of a proxy in order that the appointment may be effective at such meeting, shall have effect as if a period of forty-eight hours had been specified in or required by such provision for such deposit.

(5) If for the purpose of any meeting of a company, invitations to appoint as proxy a person or one of a number of persons specified in the invitations are issued at the company’s expense to any member entitled to have a notice of the meeting sent to him and to vote thereat by proxy, every officer of the company who knowingly issues the invitations as aforesaid or willfully authorises or permits their issue shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees:

Provided that an officer shall not be punishable under this sub-section by reason only of the issue to a member at his request in writing of a form of appointment naming the proxy, or of a list of persons willing to act as proxies, if the form or list is available on request in writing to every member entitled to vote at the meeting by proxy.

(6) The instrument appointing a proxy shall–

(a) be in writing; and

(b) be signed by the appointer or his attorney duly authorised in writing or, if the appointer is a body corporate, be under its seal or be signed by an officer or an attorney duly authorised by it.

(7) An instrument appointing a proxy, if in the form as may be prescribed, shall not be questioned on the ground that it fails to comply with any special requirements specified for such instrument by the articles of a company.

(8) Every member entitled to vote at a meeting of the company, or on any resolution to be moved thereat, shall be entitled during the period beginning twenty-four hours before the time fixed for the commencement of the meeting and ending with the conclusion of the meeting, to inspect the proxies lodged, at any time during the business hours of the company, provided not less than three days’ notice in writing of the intention so to inspect is given to the company.

Section 106 – Restriction on voting rights
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the articles of a company may provide that no member shall exercise any voting right in respect of any shares registered in his name on which any calls or other sums presently payable by him have not been paid, or in regard to which the company has exercised any right of lien.

(2) A company shall not, except on the grounds specified in sub-section (1), prohibit any member from exercising his voting right on any other ground.

(3) On a poll taken at a meeting of a company, a member entitled to more than one vote, or his proxy, where allowed, or other person entitled to vote for him, as the case may be, need not, if he votes, use all his votes or cast in the same way all the votes he uses.

Section 107 – Voting by show of hands
(1) At any general meeting, a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall, unless a poll is demanded under section 109 or the voting is carried out electronically, be decided on a show of hands.

(2) A declaration by the Chairman of the meeting of the passing of a resolution or otherwise by show of hands under sub-section (1) and an entry to that effect in the books containing the minutes of the meeting of the company shall be conclusive evidence of the fact of passing of such resolution or otherwise.

Section 108 – Voting through electronic means
The Central Government may prescribe the class or classes of companies and manner in which a member may exercise his right to vote by the electronic means.

Section 109 – Demand for poll
(1) Before or on the declaration of the result of the voting on any resolution on show of hands, a poll may be ordered to be taken by the Chairman of the meeting on his own motion, and shall be ordered to be taken by him on a demand made in that behalf,–

(a) in the case a company having a share capital, by the members present in person or by proxy, where allowed, and having not less than one-tenth of the total voting power or holding shares on which an aggregate sum of not less than five lakh rupees or such higher amount as may be prescribed has been paid-up; and

(b) in the case of any other company, by any member or members present in person or by proxy, where allowed, and having not less than one-tenth of the total voting power.

(2) The demand for a poll may be withdrawn at any time by the persons who made the demand.

(3) A poll demanded for adjournment of the meeting or appointment of Chairman of the meeting shall be taken forthwith.

(4) A poll demanded on any question other than adjournment of the meeting or appointment of Chairman shall be taken at such time, not being later than forty-eight hours from the time when the demand was made, as the Chairman of the meeting may direct.

(5) Where a poll is to be taken, the Chairman of the meeting shall appoint such number of persons, as he deems necessary, to scrutinise the poll process and votes given on the poll and to report thereon to him in the manner as may be prescribed.

(6) Subject to the provisions of this section, the Chairman of the meeting shall have power to regulate the manner in which the poll shall be taken.

(7) The result of the poll shall be deemed to be the decision of the meeting on the resolution on which the poll was taken.

Section 110 – Postal ballot
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, a company–

(a) shall, in respect of such items of business as the Central Government may, by notification, declare to be transacted only by means of postal ballot; and

(b) may, in respect of any item of business, other than ordinary business and any business in respect of which directors or auditors have a right to be heard at any meeting, transact by means of postal ballot,

in such manner as may be prescribed, instead of transacting such business at a general meeting.

(2) If a resolution is assented to by the requisite majority of the shareholders by means of postal ballot, it shall be deemed to have been duly passed at a general meeting convened in that behalf.

Section 111 – Circulation of members’ resolution
(1) A company shall, on requisition in writing of such number of members, as required in section 100,–

(a) give notice to members of any resolution which may properly be moved and is intended to be moved at a meeting; and

(b) circulate to members any statement with respect to the matters referred to in proposed resolution or business to be dealt with at that meeting.

(2) A company shall not be bound under this section to give notice of any resolution or to circulate any statement unless–

(a) a copy of the requisition signed by the requisitionists (or two or more copies which, between them, contain the signatures of all the requisitionists) is deposited at the registered office of the company,–

(i) in the case of a requisition requiring notice of a resolution, not less than six weeks before the meeting;

(ii) in the case of any other requisition, not less than two weeks before the meeting; and

(b) there is deposited or tendered with the requisition, a sum reasonably sufficient to meet the company’s expenses in giving effect thereto:

Provided that if, after a copy of a requisition requiring notice of a resolution has been deposited at the registered office of the company, an annual general meeting is called on a date within six weeks after the copy has been deposited, the copy, although not deposited within the time required by this sub-section, shall be deemed to have been properly deposited for the purposes thereof.

(3) The company shall not be bound to circulate any statement as required by clause (b) of sub-section (1), if on the application either of the company or of any other person who claims to be aggrieved, the Central Government, by order, declares that the rights conferred by this section are being abused to secure needless publicity for defamatory matter.

(4) An order made under sub-section (3) may also direct that the cost incurred by the company by virtue of this section shall be paid to the company by the requisitionists, notwithstanding that they are not parties to the application.

(5) If any default is made in complying with the provisions of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five thousand rupees.

Section 112 – Representation of President and Governors in meetings
(1) The President of India or the Governor of a State, if he is a member of a company, may appoint such person as he thinks fit to act as his representative at any meeting of the company or at any meeting of any class of members of the company.

(2) A person appointed to act under sub-section (1) shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be a member of such a company and shall be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers, including the right to vote by proxy and postal ballot, as the President or, as the case may be, the Governor could exercise as a member of the company.

Section 113 – Representation of corporations at meeting of companies and of creditors
(1) A body corporate, whether a company within the meaning of this Act or not, may,–

(a) if it is a member of a company within the meaning of this Act, by resolution of its Board of Directors or other governing body, authorise such person as it thinks fit to act as its representative at any meeting of the company, or at any meeting of any class of members of the company;

(b) if it is a creditor, including a holder of debentures, of a company within the meaning of this Act, by resolution of its directors or other governing body, authorise such person as it thinks fit to act as its representative at any meeting of any creditors of the company held in pursuance of this Act or of any rules made thereunder, or in pursuance of the provisions contained in any debenture or trust deed, as the case may be.

(2) A person authorised by resolution under sub-section (1) shall be entitled to exercise the same rights and powers, including the right to vote by proxy and by postal ballot, on behalf of the body corporate which he represents as that body could exercise if it were an individual member, creditor or holder of debentures of the company.

Section 114 – Ordinary and special resolutions
(1) A resolution shall be an ordinary resolution if the notice required under this Act has been duly given and it is required to be passed by the votes cast, whether on a show of hands, or electronically or on a poll, as the case may be, in favour of the resolution, including the casting vote, if any, of the Chairman, by members who, being entitled so to do, vote in person, or where proxies are allowed, by proxy or by postal ballot, exceed the votes, if any, cast against the resolution by members, so entitled and voting.

(2) A resolution shall be a special resolution when–

(a) the intention to propose the resolution as a special resolution has been duly specified in the notice calling the general meeting or other intimation given to the members of the resolution;

(b) the notice required under this Act has been duly given; and

(c) the votes cast in favour of the resolution, whether on a show of hands, or electronically or on a poll, as the case may be, by members who, being entitled so to do, vote in person or by proxy or by postal ballot, are required to be not less than three times the number of the votes, if any, cast against the resolution by members so entitled and voting.

Section 115 – Resolutions requiring special notice
Where, by any provision contained in this Act or in the articles of a company, special notice is required of any resolution, notice of the intention to move such resolution shall be given to the company by such number of members holding not less than one per cent. of total voting power or holding shares on which such aggregate sum not exceeding five lakh rupees, as may be prescribed, has been paid-up and the company shall give its members notice of the resolution in such manner as may be prescribed.

Section 116 – Resolutions passed at adjourned meeting
Where a resolution is passed at an adjourned meeting of–

(a) a company; or

(b) the holders of any class of shares in a company; or

(c) the Board of Directors of a company,

the resolution shall, for all purposes, be treated as having been passed on the date on which it was in fact passed, and shall not be deemed to have been passed on any earlier date.

Section 117 – Resolutions and agreements to be filed
(1) A copy of every resolution or any agreement, in respect of matters specified in sub-section (3) together with the explanatory statement under section 102, if any, annexed to the notice calling the meeting in which the resolution is proposed, shall be filed with the Registrar within thirty days of the passing or making thereof in such manner and with such fees as may be prescribed within the time specified under section 403:

Provided that the copy of every resolution which has the effect of altering the articles and the copy of every agreement referred to in sub-section (3) shall be embodied in or annexed to every copy of the articles issued after passing of the resolution or making of the agreement.

(2) If a company fails to file the resolution or the agreement under sub-section (1) before the expiry of the period specified under section 403 with additional fee, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default, including liquidator of the company, if any, shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

(3) The provisions of this section shall apply to–

(a) special resolutions;

(b) resolutions which have been agreed to by all the members of a company, but which, if not so agreed to, would not have been effective for their purpose unless they had been passed as special resolutions;

(c) any resolution of the Board of Directors of a company or agreement executed by a company, relating to the appointment, re-appointment or renewal of the appointment, or variation of the terms of appointment, of a managing director;

(d) resolutions or agreements which have been agreed to by any class of members but which, if not so agreed to, would not have been effective for their purpose unless they had been passed by a specified majority or otherwise in some particular manner; and all resolutions or agreements which effectively bind such class of members though not agreed to by all those members;

(e) resolutions passed by a company according consent to the exercise by its Board of Directors of any of the powers under clause (a) and clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 180;

(f) resolutions requiring a company to be wound up voluntarily passed in pursuance of section 304;

(g) resolutions passed in pursuance of sub-section (3) of section 179; and

(h) any other resolution or agreement as may be prescribed and placed in the public domain.

Section 118 – Minutes of proceedings of general meeting, meeting of Board of Directors and other meeting and resolutions passed by postal ballot
(1) Every company shall cause minutes of the proceedings of every general meeting of any class of shareholders or creditors, and every resolution passed by postal ballot and every meeting of its Board of Directors or of every committee of the Board, to be prepared and signed in such manner as may be prescribed and kept within thirty days of the conclusion of every such meeting concerned, or passing of resolution by postal ballot in books kept for that purpose with their pages consecutively numbered.

(2) The minutes of each meeting shall contain a fair and correct summary of the proceedings thereat.

(3) All appointments made at any of the meetings aforesaid shall be included in the minutes of the meeting.

(4) In the case of a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee of the Board, the minutes shall also contain–

(a) the names of the directors present at the meeting; and

(b) in the case of each resolution passed at the meeting, the names of the directors, if any, dissenting from, or not concurring with the resolution.

(5) There shall not be included in the minutes, any matter which, in the opinion of the Chairman of the meeting,–

(a) is or could reasonably be regarded as defamatory of any person; or

(b) is irrelevant or immaterial to the proceedings; or

(c) is detrimental to the interests of the company.

(6) The Chairman shall exercise absolute discretion in regard to the inclusion or non-inclusion of any matter in the minutes on the grounds specified in sub-section (5).

(7) The minutes kept in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be evidence of the proceedings recorded therein.

(8) Where the minutes have been kept in accordance with sub-section (1) then, until the contrary is proved, the meeting shall be deemed to have been duly called and held, and all proceedings thereat to have duly taken place, and the resolutions passed by postal ballot to have been duly passed and in particular, all appointments of directors, key managerial personnel, auditors or company secretary in practice, shall be deemed to be valid.

(9) No document purporting to be a report of the proceedings of any general meeting of a company shall be circulated or advertised at the expense of the company, unless it includes the matters required by this section to be contained in the minutes of the proceedings of such meeting.

(10) Every company shall observe secretarial standards with respect to general and Board meetings specified by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India constituted under section 3 of the Company Secretaries Act, 1980 (56 of 1980), and approved as such by the Central Government.

(11) If any default is made in complying with the provisions of this section in respect of any meeting, the company shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five thousand rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a penalty of five thousand rupees.

(12) If a person is found guilty of tampering with the minutes of the proceedings of meeting, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years and with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees.

Section 119 – Inspection of minute
(1) The books containing the minutes of the proceedings of any general meeting of a company or of a resolution passed by postal ballot, shall–

(a) be kept at the registered office of the company; and

(b) be open, during business hours, to the inspection by any member without charge, subject to such reasonable restrictions as the company may, by its articles or in general meeting, impose, so, however, that not less than two hours in each business day are allowed for inspection.

(2) Any member shall be entitled to be furnished, within seven working days after he has made a request in that behalf to the company, and on payment of such fees as may be prescribed, with a copy of any minutes referred to in sub-section (1).

(3) If any inspection under sub-section (1) is refused, or if any copy required under sub-section (2) is not furnished within the time specified therein, the company shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five thousand rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be liable to a penalty of five thousand rupees for each such refusal or default, as the case may be.

(4) In the case of any such refusal or default, the Tribunal may, without prejudice to any action being taken under sub-section (3), by order, direct an immediate inspection of the minute-books or direct that the copy required shall forthwith be sent to the person requiring it.

Section 120 – Maintenance and inspection of documents in electronic form
Without prejudice to any other provisions of this Act, any document, record, register, minutes, etc.,–

(a) required to be kept by a company; or

(b) allowed to be inspected or copies to be given to any person by a company under this Act, may be kept or inspected or copies given, as the case may be, in electronic form in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

Section 121 – Report on annual general meeting
(1) Every listed public company shall prepare in the prescribed manner a report on each annual general meeting including the confirmation to the effect that the meeting was convened, held and conducted as per the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder.

(2) The company shall file with the Registrar a copy of the report referred to in subsection (1) within thirty days of the conclusion of the annual general meeting with such fees as may be prescribed, or with such additional fees as may be prescribed, within the time as specified, under section 403.

(3) If the company fails to file the report under sub-section (2) before the expiry of the period specified under section 403 with additional fee, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees.

Section 122 – Applicability of this Chapter to One Person Company
(1) The provisions of section 98 and sections 100 to 111 (both inclusive) shall not apply to a One Person Company.

(2) The ordinary businesses as mentioned under clause (a) of sub-section (2) of section 102 which a company, other than a One Person Company, is required to transact at its annual general meeting, shall be transacted, in case of One Person Company, as provided in sub-section (3).

(3) For the purposes of section 114, any business which is required to be transacted at an annual general meeting or other general meeting of a company by means of an ordinary or special resolution, it shall be sufficient if, in case of One Person Company, the resolution is communicated by the member to the company and entered in the minutes-book required to be maintained under section 118 and signed and dated by the member and such date shall be deemed to be the date of the meeting for all the purposes under this Act.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in this Act, where there is only one director on the Board of Director of a One Person Company, any business which is required to be transacted at the meeting of the Board of Directors of a company, it shall be sufficient if, in case of such One Person Company, the resolution by such director is entered in the minutes-book required to be maintained under section 118 and signed and dated by such director and such date shall be deemed to be the date of the meeting of the Board of Directors for all the purposes under this Act.

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