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Home » Bare-acts » The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Micro Organisms Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules, 1989

New Delhi, the 5th December, 1989

G.S.R. 1037(E).- In exercise of the powers conferred by sections 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) and with a view to protecting the environment, nature and hea11h, in connection with the application of genetechnology and micro-organisms, the Central Government hereby makes the following rules, namely:-

1. Short title, extent and commencement.- (1) These rules may be called The Rules For The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export And Storage Of Hazardous Micro-Organisms/genetically Engineered Organisms Or Cells, 1989.

(2) These rules shall come into operation on the date to be notified for this purpose in the Official Gazette.

2. Application.- (1) These rules are applicable to the manufacture, import and storage of micro-organisms and gene-technological products.

(2) These rules shall also apply to genetically engineered organisms/micro-organisms and cells and correspondingly to any substances and products and food-stuffs, etc., of which such cells, organisms or tissues thereof form part.

(3) These rules shall also apply to new gene-technologies apart from those referred to in clauses (ii) and (iv) of rule 3 and these rules shall apply to organisms/micro-organisms and cells generated by the utilisation of such other gene-technologies and to substances and products of which such organisms and cells form part.

(4) These rules shall be applicable in the following specific cases

(a) sale, offers for sale, storage for the purpose of sale, offers and any kind of handling over with or without a consideration;

(b) exportation and importation of genetically engineered cells or organisms;

(c) production, manufacturing, processing, storage, import, drawing off, packaging and repackaging of the genetically engineered products;

(d) production, manufacture, etc., of drugs and pharmaceuticals and food-stuffs, distilleries and tanneries, etc., which make use of micro-organisms/genetically engineered micro-organisms one way or the other.

(5) These rules shall be applicable to the whole of India.

3. Definitions.- In these rules, unless the context requires,

(i) “Biotechnology” means the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to produce goods and services;

(ii) “cell hybridisation” means the formation of live cells with new combinations of genetic material through the fusion of two or more cells by means of methods which do not occur naturally;

[(iii) “Expert Members:” Director General-Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Director General -Indian Council of Medical Research, Director General-Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Director General­Health Services, Plant Protection Advisor, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage, Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board or their representatives not below the rank of Joint Secretary and three outside experts in individual capacity.]

(iv) “genetic engineering” means the technique by which heritable material which does not usually occur or will not occur naturally in the organism or cell concerned, generated outside the organism or the cell is inserted into said cell or organism. It shall also mean the formation of new combinations of genetic material by incorporation of a cell into a host cell, where they occur naturally (self-cloning as well as modification of an organism or in a cell by deletion and removal of parts of the heritable material;

(v) “micro-organisms” shall include all the bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycoplasma, cell lines, algae, protozoans and nematodes indicated in the Schedule and those that have not been presently known to exist in the country.

4. Competent Authorities.- (1) Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RDAC).-This Committee shall review developments in Biotechnology at national and international levels and shall recommend suitable and appropriate safety regulations for India in recombinant research, use and applications from time to time. The Committee shall function in the Department of Biotechnology.

(2) Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation (RCGM).-This Committee shall function in the Department of Biotechnology to monitor the safety related aspects in respect of on-going research projects and activities involving genetically engineered organisms/ hazardous micro-organisms. The Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation shall include representatives of (a) Department of Biotechnology (b) Indian Council of Medical Research (c) Indian Council of Agricultural Research (d) Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (e) other experts in their individual capacity. Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation may appoint sub-groups.

It shall bring out manuals of guidelines specifying procedure for regulatory process with respect to activities involving genetically engineered organisms in research, use and applications, including industry, with a view to ensure environmental safety. All on-going projects involving high risk category and controlled field experiments shall be reviewed to ensure that adequate precautions and containment conditions are followed as per the guidelines.

The Review Committee on Genetic Manipulation shall lay down procedures restricting or prohibiting production, sale, importation and use of such genetically engineered organisms or cells as are mentioned in the Schedule.

(3) Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC).-This Committee shall be constituted by an occupier or any person, including research institutions, handling micro-organisms/genetically engineered organisms. The Committee shall comprise the Head of the Institution, scientists engaged in DNA work, a medical expert and a nominee of the Department of Biotechnology. The occupier or any person including research institutions handling micro-organisms/genetically engineered organisms shall prepare, with the assistance of the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBSC), an up-to-date on-site emergency plan according to the manuals/ guidelines of the RCGM and make available copies to the District Level Committee/State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee and the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.

(4) Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC).-This Committee shall function as a body under the Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife for approval of activities involving large scale use of hazardous micro-organisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle. The Committee shall also be responsible for approval of proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment, including experimental field trials.

(5) State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee (SBCC).-There shall be a State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee in the States wherever necessary. It shall have powers to inspect, investigate and take punitive action in case of violation of statutory provisions through the Nodal Department and the State Pollution Control Board /Directorate of Health/Medical Services. The Committee shall review periodically the safety and control measures in the various industries/ institutions handling genetically engineered organisms /hazardous micro-organisms.

(6) District Level Committee (DLC).-There shall be a District Level Biotechnology Committee (DLC) in the districts wherever necessary under the District Collectors to monitor the safety regulations in installations engaged in the use of genetically modified organisms /hazardous micro-organisms and its applications in the environment.

The District Level Committee or any other persons authorised in this behalf shall visit the installation engaged in activity involving genetically engineered organisms, hazardous micro-organisms, formulate an information chart, find out hazards and risks associated with each of these installations a. . co-ordinate activities with a view to meeting any emergency. They shall al,,,) prepare an off-site emergency plan. The District Level Committee shall regularly submit its report to the State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee and the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.

5. Classification of micro-organisms or genetically engineered product.- (1) For the purpose of these rules, micro-organisms or genetically engineered organisms, products or cells shall be dealt with under two major heads: animal pathogens and plant pests and these shall be classified in the manner specified in the Schedule.

(2) If any of the micro-organisms/genetically engineered organism or cell falls within the limits of more than one risk class as specified in the Schedule, it shall be deemed to belong exclusively to the last in number of such classes.

6. Animal Pathogens And Plant Pests

Micro-organisms laid down in the Schedule are divided into the following.

(i) Bacterial Agents;

(ii) Fungal Agents;

(iii) Parasitic Agents;

(iv) Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Agents;

(v) Special Category.

7. Approval and prohibition, etc.- (1) No person shall import, export, transport, manufacture, process, use or sell any hazardous micro-organism or genetically engineered organism/ substance or cell except with the approval of the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.

(2) Use of pathogenic micro-organism or any genetically engineered organism or cell for the purpose of research shall only be allowed in laboratories or inside laboratory areas notified by the Ministry of Environment and Forests for this purpose under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

(3) The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee shall give directions to the occupier to determine or take measures concerning the discharge of micro-organisms/genetically engineered organisms or cells mentioned in the Schedule from the laboratories, hospitals and other areas including prohibition of such discharges and laying down measures to be taken to prevent such discharges.

(4) Any person operating or using genetically engineered organisms/ micro-organisms mentioned in the Schedule for scale up or pilot operations shall have to obtain licence issued by the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee for any such activity. The possessor shall have to apply for licence in the prescribed profornia.

(5) Certain experiments for the purpose of education within the field of gene technology or micro-organism may be carried outside the laboratories and laboratory areas mentioned in sub-rule (2) and will be looked after by the Institutional Biosafety Committee.

8. Production.- Production in which genetically engineered organisms or cells or micro-organisms are generated or used shall not be commenced except with the consent of Genetic Engineering Approval Committee with respect to the discharge of genetically engineered organisms or cells into the environment. This shall also apply to production taking place in connection with development, testing and experiments where such production, etc., is not subject to rule 7.

9. Deliberate or unintentional release.- (1) Deliberate or unintentional release of genetically engineered organisms /hazardous micro-organisms or cells, including deliberate release for the purpose of experiment shall not be allowed.

Note.-Deliberate release shall mean any intentional transfer of genetically engineered organisms/ hazardous microorganisms or cells to the environment or nature, irrespective of the way in which it is done.

(2) The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee may in special cases give approval of deliberate release.

10. Permission and approval for certain substances.- Substances and products, which contain genetically engineered organisms or cells or micro-organisms shall not be produced, sold, imported or used except with the approval of the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.

11. Permission and approval for food-stuffs.- Food-stuffs, ingredients in food-stuffs and additives, including processing aids, containing or consisting of genetically engineered organisms or cells, shall not be produced, sold, imported or used except with the approval of the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.

12. Guidelines.- (1) Any person who applies for approval under rules 8-11 shall, as determined by the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee submit information and make examinations or cause examinations to be made to elucidate the case, including examinations according to specific directions and at specific laboratories. He shall also make available an on-site emergency plan to the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee before obtaining the approval. If the authority itself makes an examination it self, it may order the applicant to defray the expenses incurred by it in doing so.

(2) Any person to whom an approval has been granted under rules 8-11 above shall notify the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee of any change in or addition to information already submitted.

13. Grant of approval.- (1) In connection with the granting of approval under rules 8-11 above, terms and conditions shall be stipulated, including terms and conditions as to the control to be exercised by the applicant, supervisions, restriction on use, the layout of the enterprise and as to the submission of information to the State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee or to the District Level Committee.

(2) All approvals of the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee shall be for a specified period not exceeding four years at the first instance renewable for 2 years at a time.

The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee shall have powers to revoke such approval in the following situations:

(a) if there is any new information as to the harmful effects of the genetically engineered organisms or cells;

(b) if the genetically engineered organisms or cells cause such damage to the environment, nature or health as could not be envisaged when the approval was given; or

(c) non-compliance of any condition stipulated by the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee.

14. Supervision.- (1) The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee may supervise the implementation of the terms and conditions laid down in connection with the approvals accorded by it.

(2) The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee may carry out this supervision through the State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee or the State Pollution Control Board/District Level Committee-or through any person authorised in this behalf.

15. Penalties.- (1) If an order is not complied with, the District Level Committee or State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee may take measures at the expense of the person who is responsible.

(2) In case where immediate intervention is required in order to prevent any damage to -the environment, nature or health, the District Level Committee or State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee may take the necessary steps without issuing any orders or notice. The expenses incurred for this purpose will be repayable by the person responsible for such damage.

(3) The State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee /District Level Committee may take samples for a more detailed examination of organisms and cells.

(4) The State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee/ District Level Committee shall be competent to ask for assistance from any other Government authority to carry out its instructions.

16. Responsibility to notify interruption or accidents.- (1) Any person who under rules 7-11 is responsible for conditions or arrangements shall immediately notify the District Level Committee, State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee and the State medical officer of any interruption of operations or accidents that may lead to discharges of genetically engineered organisms or cells which may be harmful to the environment, nature of health or involve any danger thereto.

(2) Any notice given under sub-rule (1) above shall not lessen the duty of the person who is responsible to try effectively to minimise or prevent the effects of interruption of operations or accidents.

17. Preparation of Off-site Emergency Plan by the DLC.- (1) It shall be the duty of the DLC to prepare an off-site emergency plan detailing how emergencies relating to a possible major accident at a site will be dealt with and in preparing the plan, the DLC shall consult the occupier and such other person as it may deem necessary.

(2) For the purpose of enabling the DLC to prepare the emergency plan required under sub-rule (1), the occupier shall provide the DLC with such information relating to the handling of hazardous micro-organisms/ genetically engineered organisms under his control as the DLC may require, including the nature, extent and likely off-site effects of a possible major accident and the DLC shall provide the occupier with any information from the off-site emergency plan which relates to his duties under rule 16.

18. Inspection and information regarding finance.- (1) The State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee or the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee/the DLC or any person with special knowledge duly authorised by the State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee or the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee or the DLC where it is deemed necessary, at any time on due production of identity be admitted to public as well as to private premises and localities for the purpose of carrying out supervision.

(2) Any person who is responsible for activities subject to rules 7-11 above shall at the request of District Level Committee or State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee or the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee submit all such information, including information relating to financial conditions and accounts, as is essential to the authority’s administration under these rules. He shall also follow supervision or inspection by the authorities or persons indicating in sub-rule (1).

(3) The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee may fix fees to cover, in whole or in part, the expenses incurred by the authorities in connection with approvals, examination, supervision and control.

19. Appeal.- (1) Any person aggrieved by a decision made by the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee/State Biotechnology Co-ordination Committee in pursuance of these rules may within thirty days from the date on which the decision is communicated to him, prefer an appeal to such authority as may be appointed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests provided that the Appellate Authority may entertain the appeal after the expiry of the said period of thirty days if such authority is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal in time.

20. Exemption.- The Ministry of Environment and Forests shall, wherever necessary, exempt an occupier handling a particular micro-organism/ genetically engineered organism from rules 7-11.


Risk Group II

Acinetobacter calcoacetieus

Actinobacillus-all species except A mallei, which is in Risk Group III

Aeromonoas hydrophila

Arizona hinshawii-all serotypes

Bacillus anthracis

Bordetella all species

Borrelia recurrentis.B.Vincenti

Campylobacter fetus

Camphylobacter jejuni, Chalamydia psittaci

Cheamydia trachomatics

Clostridium chauvoei, Cl.difficile Cl/fallax. Cl haemolyticum Q.histolyticum, CI novyi (CI,Pefringes) Cl.speticum, Cl.sordelli

Corynebacterium diptheriae, C.equi, C. haemolyticum, C.Pseudotuberculosis, C.pyogenes, C.renale

Diplococcus (Streptococcus) pneumoniae

Edwardsiila tarda

Erysipelothix insidiosa

Escherichia Coli-all enteropathogenic serotypes, enterotoxigenic

Haemophilus ducrevi, H.influenzae, H. pneumoniae

Herellea vaginicola

Klebsiella-all species and all serotypes

Legionlla pneumophila


Leptospira interrogans-all serotypes reported in India

Listeria, all species

Mima polymorpha

Moraxella-all species

Mycobacteria-all species including Mycobacterium avium

M.Bovis M.tuberculosis, M.Leprae

Mycoplasma-all species except M.Mycoides and M.angalactiae

Meosseroc gonorrhoea,N. Leprae

Mycoplasma-all species except M.Mycoides and M.angalactiae

Neisseric gonorrhoea,N. meningitis

Pasteurella-all species except those listed in Risk Group III

Salmonella-all species and all setotypes

Shigella-all species and all serotypes

Sphaerophorgs necrophorus

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptobacillus moniliformis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes.S.equi

Streptomyces madurae,s.pelleteri, s.somaliensis

Treponema carateum, T.pallidam and T.pettenue

Vibrio foetus V.comma including biotype EI Top and

V. parahemolyticus

Vibrio cholerae

Risk Group III:

Actinobacillus mallei

Bartonella-all species

Brucella-all species

Clostridium botulium Cl.tetani

Francisella tularensis

Mycobacterium avium,. M.bovis, M.tuberculosis,m.leprae

Pasteurella multocida type B(“buffalo” and other foreign virulent strains)

Pseudomonas pseudomallai

Yersinia pestis


Risk Group II

·Actinomycetes (including Nocardia SP, Actinomyces species and Arachina propinica)

·Aspergillus fumigatus

·Blastomyces dermatitis

·Cryptococcus neoformans C. fersiminosos

·Epidermophyton madurella, microsporon

·Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis




Risk Group III

Coccidioides immitis

Histoplasma capulatum

Histoplasma capsulatum var duboiss


Risk Group II

·Entahoeba histolytica

·Leishmania species

·Naegleria gruberia

·Plasmodium theilera, P. babesia, P. falcoparum

·Plasmodium babesia


·Toxoplasma gondii

·Toxocana canis

·Trichinella spiralis


·Trypanosoma cruzi

Risk Group III

·Schisistosoma mansoni


Risk Group II

·Adenoviruses – Human all types

·Avian loukosis

·Cache Valley virus

·CELO (avian adenovirus)

·Coxsackie A and B viruses

·Corona viruses

·Cytomegalo viruses

·Dengue virus, when used for transmission experiments

·Echo viruses – all types

·Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC)

·Flanders virus

·Hart Part virus

·Hepatitis – associated antigen material – hepatitis A and B viruses, non A and non B, HDV

·Herpes viruses – except herpesviruses simiae (monkey B virus) which is in Risk Group IV.

·Infectious Bovine Rhinotraechitis virus (IBR)

·Infectious Bursal diseases of poultry and Infectious Bronchitus

·Infectious Laryngotraechitis (ILT)

·Influenza virus – all types, except A PR 834 which is in Risk Group I

·Langat virus Leucosis Complex

·Lymphogranuloma venereum agent

·Marek’s Disease virus

·Measles virus

·Mumps virus

·Newcastle disease virus (other than licenced strain for vaccine use)

·Parainfluenza viruses – all type except parainfluenza virus 3, SF4 strain, which is in Risk Group I.

·Polio viruses – all types, wild and attenuated

·Poxviruses – all types except Alastrim, monkey pox, sheep pox and white pox, which depending on experiments are in Risk Group III or IV.

·Rabies virus – all strains except rabies stret virus, which should be classified in Risk Group III when inoculated into cornivores

·Reoviruses – all types

·Respiratory syncytial virus

·Rhinoviruses – all types

·Rinderpest (other than vaccine strain in use)

·Rubella virus

·Stimian viruses – all types except herpeavirus simlae (Monkey Virus) which is in Risk Group IV.

·Simian virus 40 –

·Ad 7 SV 40 (defective)

·Sindbis virus

·Tensaw virus

·Turlock virus

·Vaccinia virus

·Varicella virus

·Vole rickettsia

·Yellow fever virus, 17D vaccine strain

Risk Group III

African House Sickness (attenuated strain except animal passage)

Alastrim, monkey pox and whitepox, when used in vitro

Arboviruses – All strains except those in Risk Group II and IV.

Blue tongue virus (only serotypes reported in India)

Ebola fever virus

Feline Leukemia Epstein-Barr virus

Feline sarcoma

Foot and Mouth Disease virus (all serotypes and sutbypes)

Gibbon Ape Lymphosarcoma

Herpesvirus ateles

Herpesvirus saimiri

Herpes simplex 2

HIV-I & HIV-2 and strains of SIV

Infectious Equine Anaemia

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM)

Monkey pox, when used in vitro

Nen-defective Adeno-2 SV-40 hybrids

Psittacosis-ornithosis-trachoma group of agents

Pseudorabies virus

Rabies street virus, when used inoculations of carnivores

Rickettsia-all species except Vole rickettsia and Coxiell burnetti when used for vector transmission or animal inoculation experiments

Sheep pox (field strain)

Swine Fever virus

Vesicular stomatitis virus

Woolly monkey Fibrosarcoma

Yaba pox virus

Risk Group IV

Alastrim, monkeypox, whitepox, when used for transmission or animal inoculation experiments

Hemorrhagic fever agents, including Crimean hemorrhagic fever (congo)

Korean hemorrhagic fever and others as yet undefined

Herpesvirus simlae (monkey B virus)

Tick-borne encephalitis virus complex, including – Russian Spring Summer Encephalitis, Kyasanur Forest Diseast, omsk hemorrhagic fever and Central European encephalitis viruses



Contagious Equine Metritis (H. equigenitalis) Pestis petit de ruminantium


African Horse Sickness virus (serotypes not reported in India and challenge strains)

African Swine Fever

Bat rabies virus

Blue tongue virus (serotypes not reported in India)

Exoitic FMD virus types and sub-types

Junin and Machupo viruses

Lassa virus

Marburg virus

Murrey valley encephalitis virus

Rift Valley Fever virus

Smallpox virus – Archieval storage and propagation Swine Vesicular Disease

Veneseulan equine encephalitis virus – epidemic strains

Western Equine encephalitis virus Yellow fever virus – Wild strain

Other Arboviruses causing epizootics and so far not recorded in India


Any living stage (including active and dormant forms) of insects, mites nematodes, slugs, snails, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, other parsitic plants or reproductive parts thereof: viruses; or any organisms similar to or allied with any of the foregoing; or any infectious agents or substances, which can directly or indirectly injure or cause disease or damage in or to any plants or parts thereof, or any processed, manufactured, or other products of plants are considered plant pests.

Organisms belonging to all lower Taxa contained within the group listed are also included.


All viroids

All bacterial, fungal, algal, plant, insect and nematode viruses; special care should be take for:



iii.Nuclear Polyhedrosis viruses,

iv.Granulosis viruses, and

v.Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses.

2. Bacteria:

Family Pseudomonadaceae

Genus Pseudomonas

Genus Xanthomonas

Genus Azotobacter

Family Rhizobiaceae

Genus Rhizobium/Azorhizobium

Genus Bradyrhizobium

Genus Agrobacterium

Genus Phyllobacterium

Genus Erwinia

Genus Enterobacter

Genus Klebzieller

Family Spirollacea

Genus Azospirillum

Genus Acquspirillum

Genus Oceonospirillum

Family Streptomycetaceae

Genue Streptomyces

Genue Nocardia

Family Actinomycetaceae

Genue Actinomyces

Coryneform Group

Genus Clavibacter

Genus Arthrobacter

Genus Curtobacterium

Genus Bdellovibro

Family Rickettsiaceae

Rickettsial-like organisms associated with insect diseases

Gram-negative phloem-limited bacteria associated with plant diseases

Gram-negative xylem-limited bacteria associated with plant diseases

Cyanobacteria – All members of blue-green algae


Family Spiroplasmataceae

Mycoplama-like organisma associated with plant diseases

Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with insect diseases


Family Chlorophyceae

Family Euglenophyceae

Family Pyrophyceae

Family Chrysophyceae

Family Phaephyceae

Family Rhodophyceae


Family Plasmodiophoraceae

Family Chytridiaceae

Family Olpidiopsidaceae

Family Synchytriaceae

Family Catenariaceae

Family Coelomomycetaceae

Family Saprolegniaceae

Family Zoopagaceae

Family Albuginaceae

Family Peronosporaceae

Family Pythiaceae

Family Mucoraceae

Family Choanephoraceae

Family Mortiercllaceae

Family Endogonaceae

Family Syncephalastraceae

Family Dimargaritaceae

Family Kickxellaceae

Family Saksenaeaceae

Family Entomophthoraceae

Family Ecerinaceae

Family Taphrinaceae

Family Endomycetaceae

Family Saceharomycetaceae

Family Eurotiaceae

Family Gymnoascaceae

Family Aseophaeriaceae

Family Onygenaceae

Family Microascaceae

Family Protomycetaceae

Family Elsinoeaceae

Family Myriangiaceae

Family Dothidiaceae

Family Chaetothyriaceae

Family Parmulariaceae

Family Phillipsiellaceae

Family Hysteriaceae

Family Pleosporaceae

Family Melamomataceae

Family Ophiostomataceae

Family Aseosphaeriaceae

Family Erysiphaceae

Family Meliolaceae

Family Xylariaceae

Family Diaporthaceae

Family Hypoereaceae

Family Clavicipataceae

Family Phacidiaceae

Family Ascocorticiaceae

Family Hemiphacidiaceae

Family Dermataceae

Family Sclerotiniaceae

Family Cyttariaceae

Family Helosiaceae

Family Sarcostomataceae

Family Sarcoscyphaceae

Family Auricolariaceae

Family Ceratobasidiaceae

Family Corticiaceae

Family Hymenochaetaceae

Family Echinodintiaceae

Family Eistuliniaceae

Family Clavariaceae

Family Polyporaceae

Family Tricholomattaceae

Family Ustilaginaceae

Family Sporobolomycetaceae

Family Uredinaceae

Family Agaricaceae

Family Graphiolaceae

Family Pucciniaceae

Family Melampsoraceae

Family Gandodermataceae

Family Labonlbeniaceae

Family Sphaeropsidaceae

Family Melabconiaceae

Family Tuberculariaceae

Family Dematiaceae

Family Moniliaceae

Family Aganomucetaceae

Parasitic Weeds

Family Balanophoraceae-parasitic species

Family Cuscutaceae-parasitic species

Family Ttydonoraceae-parasitic species

Family Lauraceae-parasitic species Genus Cassytha

Family Lennoaceae-parasitic species

Family Loranthaceae-parasitic species

Family Myzodendraceae-parasitic species

Family Olacaceae-parasitic species

Family Orobanchaceae-parasitic species

Family Rafflesiaceae-parasitic species

Family Santalaceae-parasitic species

Family Scrophulariaceae-parasitic species


Genus Phytomonas

And all protozoa associated with insect diseases.


Family Anguinidae

Family Belonolaimidae

Fmaily Caloosiidae

Family Criconematidae

Family Dolichodoridae

Family Fergusobiidae

Family Hemicycliophoridae

Family Heteroderidae

Family Hoplolaimidae

Family Meloidogynidae

Family Neotylenchidac

Family Nothotylenchidae

Family Paratylenchidae

Family Pratylenchidae

Family Tylenchidae

Family Tylenchulidae

Family Aphelenchoidiae

Family Longidoridae

Family Trichodoridae


Superfamily Planorbacea

Superfamily Achatinacea

Superfamily Arionacea

Superfamily Limacacea

Superfamily Helicacea

Superfamily Veronicellacea


Superfamily Ascoidea

Superfamily Dermanyssoidea

Superfamily Erjophyoidea

Superfamily Tetranychoidea

Superfamily Eupodoidea

Superfamily Tydeoidea

Superfamily Erythraenoidea

Superfamily Trombidioidea

Superfamily Hydryphantoidea

Superfamily Tarasonemoidea

Superfamily Pyemotoidea

Superfamily Hemisarcoptoidea

Superfamily Acaroidea

Order Polydesmida

Family Sminthoridae

Family Forfieulidae

Order Isoptera

Order Thysanoptera

Family Acrididea

Family Gryllidae

Family Gryllacrididae

Faily Gryllotalpidae

Family Phasmatidae

Family Ronaleidae

Family Tettigoniidae

Family Tetragidae

Family Thaumastocoridae

Superfamily Piesmatoidea

Superfamily Lygacoidea

Superfamily Idiostoloidea

Superfamily Careoidea

Superfamily Pentatomoidea

Superfamily Pyrrhocoroidea

Superfamily Tingoidea

Superfamily Miroidea

Order Homoptera

Family Anobiidae

Family Apionidae

Family Anthribidae

Family Bostrichidae

Family Brentidae

Family Bruchidae

Family Buprestodae

Family Byturidae

Family Cantharidae

Family Carabidae

Family Ceambycidae

Family Chrysomelidae

Family Coecinellidae

Family Curculionidae

Family Dermestidae

Family Elalteridae

Family Hydrophilidae

Family Lyctidae

Family Meloidae

Family Mordellidae

Family Platypodidae

Family Scarabaeldae

Family Scolytidae

Family Selbytidae

Order Lepidoptera

Family Agromyzidae

Family Anthomiidae

Family Cecidomiidae

Family Chioropidae

Family Ephydridae

Family Lonchaeidae

Family Muscidae

Family Otitidae

Family Syrphidae

Family Tephritidae

Family Tipulidae

Family Apidae

Family Caphidae

Family Chalcidae

Family Cynipidae

Family Eurytomidae

Family Formicidae

Family Psilidae

Family Sircidae

Family Tenthredinidae

Family Torymidae

Family Xyloiopidae


also unclassified organism and/or organisms whose classification is unknown, and all other organisms associated with plant and insect disease.

Monday to Saturday 10:00 am to 06:00 pm.
Sundays and Holidays Reserved for urgent & prior appointments.

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